Around 80 percent of cotton seeds are genetically modified today. In India, the world’s largest cotton producer, the proportion was as high as 94 percent in 2019, and 98 percent in the USA, the third-largest growing region. It had been hoped that the genetically modified cotton plants could ward off the dreaded bollworm and make at least some insecticides superfluous. Another genetic modification of the seeds was supposed to ensure that the cotton plants would be resistant to herbicides, while other plants would die as a result. But pests and “weeds” have also developed resistances, and so farmers now have to spray more pesticides than before. It is not the only problem: due to the proliferation of genetically modified seeds, organic farmers are finding it increasingly difficult to buy GM-free seeds.